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TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH GENRE-BASED APPROACH AT SMPN 1 BANJARAN, KABUPATEN BANDUNG

Dibaca: 81 kali, Dalam kategori: Pendidikan, Diposting oleh: HENDRA, M.Pd lihat profil
pada tanggal: 2017-10-31 12:59:39 wib


A. INTRODUCTION
Needless to say that teaching-learning process is the heart of teacher’s activity quality (Suherdi: 2007). It is an intense activity that teachers must simultaneously juggle subject matter, the lesson’s underlying cognitive, social, and affective goal (Darling-Hammond. et. al: 1999). It is concerned with the creativity and the ability of how teacher successfully have their students own daily life skills. In implementing it, teacher is the successful key factor. (Richard: 2001:99).
To be a teacher is not an easy task to do. He needs to know elements of teaching knowledge such as content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge including principles and strategies for classroom organization and management, curriculum knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, an amalgam of content and pedagogy that is teachers’ special form of professional understanding, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, knowledge of educational context including the characteristics of classroom, school, communities and cultures, and the last knowledge of educational ends, purpose, and values, and their philosophical and historical ground (Darling-Hammond. et. al:1999). Moreover, Peter in Suherdi (2006:97) said that teachers still remain paramount as far as education is concerned; it is because they have experience in the subjects in which they have specialized.
In Indonesia context, teaching English as a second language (ESL) has been failure and dissatisfaction (Alwasilah: 2007:45). Therefore, the paradigm of teaching ESL has been changed from the focus on product to process, from authoritarian structure to egalitarian structure, from preplanned (rigid) curricula to flexible, open-ended curricula, from praising only “correct answer to encouraging calculated guessing and from championing analysis to valuing synthesis and institution. (Alwasilah: 2004:171).
In compliance with this problem, nowadays government applies a rule which obliges all teachers to be certified (a license to teach) in order to improve the professionalism and ability of the teachers. The new motto then emerges: “to be a good teacher or never”. It is so because to be a teacher has not been comprehensively as professionalism and there are many teachers who are not relevant and qualified. Therefore, Undang Undang no 20/2003 states that teaching is a profession must have certificate and Undang Undang no 14/2005 states that a teacher must have qualification and competence as well as teacher’s certificate.
One of the approaches to improve teaching-learning process is Genre-Based approach (GBA) which adopted from Australia. It is believed to be an alternative in the success of teacher-student interaction in the process of teaching-learning.

B. GENRE-BASED APPROACH (GBA)
The genre based approach has been a principle in arranging curriculum 2004 and the content standard as well as graduate competence standard (Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 dan 23 tahun 2006).
The term of genre is derived from Greek (genus), defined as “kind” or “sort”. (http://coursel.winona.edu/pjohnson/e511/genre.htm). Gerot and Wignell (1995) defined a genre as a culturally specific text-type which results from using language (written or spoken) to (help) accomplish something. Meanwhile, Martin in Eggins (1994) offers two useful definitions of genre:
 A genre is staged, goal-oriented, purposeful activity in which speakers engage as members of our culture
 Genres are how things get done, when language is used to accomplish them

Genre is culture specific, and has associated with the particular purposes, particular stages (distinctive beginning, middles and ends) and particular linguistic features. Eggins (1994) stated that the concept of genre is used to describe the impact of the context of culture on language, by exploring the staged, step-by-step structure cultures institutionalize as ways of achieving goals. When we describe the staged, structured way in which people go about achieving goals using language, we are describing genre.
Wachidah (2005) said that genre has at least three criteria namely: (1) social purpose that want to reach (2) structure of rhetoric, schematic or generic and (3) linguistic form that used. The relevance of genre toward teaching a language is to develop discourse competence effectively. The variety of humans need and demand in their life has produced the variety of genre in the community. Because its functions as means of doing something, genre is considered a process, action, activity and social action or communicative event. The action is chosen because it is the most appropriate to accomplish the job.
In its development, genre based approach (GBA) has some versions like Hammond: 1990, Derewianka: 1990, Green: 1992 and Metropolitan East DSP Language and Social Power: 1989 (Suherdi 2007:197) and so forth. As a comparison, here are some Genre-based cycle versions taken from Wachidah (2005).
Table1. The comparison of Genre-based cycle
STAGES Callaghan and Rothery (1987): “Curriculum Genre” Burns and Joyce (1991): “The Teaching-Learning Cycle” Feeze (1998): The Teaching-Learning Cycle
Focus: written genres Spoken to written texts Spoken and written texts
1. BUILDING KNOWLEDGE OF THE FIELD -  Cultural context
 Shared experience
 Control of relevant vocabulary
 Grammatical patterns BUILDING THE CONTEXT
Students are:
 Introduced to the social context of an authentic model of the text-type being studied
 Explore features of the general cultural context in which the text type is used and the social purposes of the text type achieve
 Explore the immediate context of situation by investigating the register of a model text which has been selected on the basis of the course objectives and learner need
2. MODELING CONTEXT
(Questions in the context of shared experience)
 The social function of this genre.
TEXT
(Information shared about text)
 Schematic stages of a genre
 Language features of a genre  Cultural context
 Social function
 Schematic structure
 Linguistic features
 Using spoken language to focus on written text MODELING AND DECONSTRUCTING THE TEXT
Students are:
 Investigate the structural patterns and language features of the model
 Compare the model with other examples of the text-type
3. JOINT CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEXT Preparation for Joint Construction of new text in the same genre. Includes activities like:
 Observation
 Research
 Note making
 Discussion
 Rehearsing
 Role play
Joint construction of new text (by student and teacher) in the same genre  Schematic structure
 Linguistic features
 Knowledge of field  Students begin to contribute to the construction of whole examples of the text type
 The teacher gradually reduces the contribution to text construction, as the students move closer to being able to control the text-type independently
4. INDEPENDENT CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEXT Preparation for independent construction of text in the same genre:
 Research
 Note making
 Observation
 Interviews
 Reading  Schematic structure
 Linguistic features
 Knowledge of field  Students work independently with the text
 Learner performances are used for achievement assessment
Independent writing of text in the same genre (drafts)
Consultaion with teacher, conferences with peers about writing
Editing and reworking of writing; critical evaluation of success.
 Publishing
Creative exploitation of genre and its possibilities
5. LINKING TO RELATED TEXTS - - In this stage students investigate how what they have learnt in this teaching/learning cycle can be related to:
 Other texts in the same or similar contexts
 Future or past cycles of teaching and learning

The teaching-learning cycle is important because of rationale and framework for sequence of teaching and learning activities, it focuses on language learning and learning about language, pedagogy which ‘scaffolds’ learners to become independent learners and flexible framework
(http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/curric/files/links/Teaching_Learning_cycle_b_1.ppt).

C. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
1) Lesson Plan Analysis
A good teacher prepares everything before teaching. He must make a lesson plan (Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran –RPP) in implementing teaching-learning program which has been mentioned in syllabus. A lesson plan is a guide for the teacher in implementing a well-organized teaching-learning in class, laboratory, and other fields for every basic competence. Therefore, the contents of a lesson plan are teaching activities in order to reach a basic competence. (Panduan pengembangan Rencana Pengembangan Pembelajaran (RPP), Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Direktorat Jendral Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah: 2006)
In arranging the lesson plan, a teacher must mention standard competence which covers basic competence. In the lesson plan, (1) the teacher writes explicitly the goal of teaching-learning, which determines purpose, aim, and rationale for the teacher and his students will engage in during class time. (2) Teaching material, this section has two functions: it helps the teacher quickly determine how much preparation time, resources, and management will be involved in carrying out this plan and what materials, books, equipment, and resources they will need to have ready. A complete list of materials, including full citations of textbooks or story books used, worksheets, and any other special considerations are most useful (3) teaching method, what kind of method the teacher will apply to get the goal. (4) teaching steps, this section provides a detailed, step-by-step description of how to replicate the lesson and achieve lesson plan objectives. This is usually intended for the teacher and provides suggestions on how to proceed with implementation of the lesson plan. It also focuses on what the teacher should have students do during the lesson. This section is basically divided into several components: an introduction, a main activity, and closure (5) teaching resources, what kind of book or other texts will be used , it is used as reference of what kind of book teacher uses and the last (6) assessment. This section focuses on ensuring that your students have arrived at their intended destination. The teacher will need to gather some evidence that they did. This usually is done by gathering students' work and assessing this work using some kind of grading rubric that is based on lesson objectives. He could also replicate some of the activities practiced as part of the lesson, without providing the same level of guidance as during the lesson. He could always quiz students on various concepts and problems as well.
(http://www.thegateway.org/collections.html)
In this case, I find that teacher made a lesson plan for the first grade of secondary school (SMPN 1 BANJARAN BANDUNG). It has a standard competence and two basic competences. It focuses on writing integrated with other skills. The text that used is the procedure text (how to make a cup of tea). Teaching method is Genre-based Approach (GBA) of which four steps (Feeze: 1998 in Wachidah 2005): (1) building knowledge of the field (2) modeling (3) joint construction and (4) Independent construction. Teaching aids or material are some media (realia) such as a cup, a heater, a bag of tea, sugar, water, spoon, etc and series of pictures (pictures of people making a cup of tea/authentic materials). The assessment applied is written (the product of students’ text of making a procedure text) and speaking (class performance). The last is teaching resource. He uses realia and authentic material.
To summarize, the lesson plan is complete and applicable to get the desired result, it is absolutely necessary for the teacher to prepare and implement it adequately. It becomes the guide for him during teaching-learning process so he can easily direct and conduct the subject and the students as well.

2) Video-recorded Teaching Analysis
The use of videotapes has given great contribution for teachers in implementing, processing and evaluating their teaching learning programs. Teachers can highlight some language points and steps of activity (Harmer: 2002). By observing and analyzing the video, teachers can easily reveal the strength and weaknesses of their teaching-learning process.
The teacher in this case applies only four stages of GBA in his teaching-learning activities.
Table 2.. A sequence of learning activities for conducting a procedure text.

No. Steps Explanation Teaching Activities
1. Building knowledge of the field Students are:
 Introduced to the social context of an authentic model of the text-type being studied
 Explore features of the general cultural context in which the text type is used and the social purposes of the text type achieve
 Explore the immediate context of situation by investigating the register of a model text which has been selected on the basis of the course objectives and learner need. (Feeze: 1998)

 The teacher asks the students’ absence.
 The teacher invites the students to discuss the topic.
 The teacher introduces some materials or equipments to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher orders the students to say the materials in English loudly
 The students point what the teacher says or another student says. (TPR)
 The teacher asks the students to say some material to make a cup of tea in English
2. Modeling and deconstruction text Students are:
 Investigate the structural patterns and language features of the model
 Compare the model with other examples of the text-type
(Feeze: 1998)
 The teacher demonstrates and shows the students how to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher asks a student to demonstrate how to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher acts out silently, and the students say what he is doing.
 The teacher directs the students in making a cup of tea.
 The teacher repeats to act out silently and the students say what he is doing
 The teacher demonstrates how to make a cup of tea many times.
3. Joint Construction  Students begin to contribute to the construction of whole examples of the text type
 The teacher gradually reduces the contribution to text construction, as the students move closer to being able to control the text-type independently (Feeze: 1998)
 The teacher groups the students to discuss how to make something.
 The teacher repeats how to make a cup of tea.
 The students go on to discuss in group of making another procedure text.
 The students write a variety of procedure text.
 In turn, each group reports assignments in front of the class.
 The teacher shows again the students the procedure of how to make a cup of tea.
4. Independent Construction  Students work independently with the text
 Learner performances are used for achievement assessment
(Feeze: 1998)
 The teacher orders the students to make something else (how to make something) in procedure texts individually.
 The students write individually their own procedure text.


From the teaching-learning activities above, it can be concluded as follows:
1. The teacher applies all steps mentioned in a lesson plan adequately. He teaches attractively and communicatively. All students are engaged in his class well.
2. The teacher goes on speaking in target language during teaching-learning process and avoids using native language, it is so to give students more exposures and engagement as well as supports (Musthafa: 2003)
3. The teacher engages students in asking, question and feedback as well. It is important not only to encourage students but also to let them know that they have performed correctly. (Nunan: 1991)
4. The teacher brings the realia, it is the technical term for any real objects that are introduced into the classroom for teaching purpose (Thornbury: 1999). Namely the materials and equipments that used in making a cup of tea. It was rewarding for the teacher since he can immediately show the thing and say it in English without any translation at all.
5. The teacher demonstrates, acts out and uses the body language in explaining to the students. He also orders students to pronounce some words correctly and loudly.
6. The teacher uses the TPR method to make students understand. It is a language teaching method built around the condition of speech and action. It attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity (Richards and Rodgers: 1986). He goes around the whole class to check students’ activities and works. It is a kind of technique to make sure that students really understand and make them secure and relax.
7. The teacher writes on the blackboard after his students understand how to make procedure text (make a cup of tea).
8. The teacher orders each group to present its work in front of the class; it is to check students’ understanding and capability.


a) Analysis of each Step
In this point, some steps in teaching-learning are analyzed based on related theory. It aims to reveal the compatibility between teaching learning in the class and the theory which supports it.
In general, the teacher has done all steps described in a lesson plan well. He implemented the GBA teaching learning as follows:
1. Building knowledge of the field
This step is aimed to introduce students to the social context of an authentic model of the text-type being studied and encourage them to explore features of the general cultural context in which the text type is used and the social purposes of the text type achieve and invite them to explore the immediate context of situation by investigating the register of a model text which has been selected on the basis of the course objectives and learner need (Feeze: 1998).
The teacher initiates teaching with some questions about students’ presentation and their interests to drinks. He asks them some material to make a cup of tea and ask them to pronounce some new vocabulary. He successfully directs them to focus on the subject being discussed.
However, in my point of view, the teacher in this case should relate students to the prior knowledge, it is important to make interrelated knowledge between the previous lesson and the new one. According to Jim Cummins (http://www.iteachilearn.com/commins), one of the most important variables with learning is a student's prior knowledge. By tapping into what students already know, teachers help with the learning process. This is because learning is relating the new information, or concepts, to what we already know. Activating prior knowledge is like preparing the soil before sowing the seeds of knowledge and the teacher does not do it, he immediately informs students to the new subject.
Moses (2000) says that students learn and remember new information best when it is linked to relevant prior knowledge. Teachers who link classroom activities and instruction to prior knowledge build on their students' familiarity with a topic and enable students to connect the curriculum content to their own culture and experience.

2. Modeling and deconstruction of the text
This step gives the teacher the chance to demonstrate and show the procedure of how to make a cup of tea. He invites students to investigate the structural patterns and language features of the model and then orders them to compare the model with other examples of the text-type (Feeze: 1998).
Modeling provides an environment for interactive student engagement. Some researches reveal that significant learning gains are achieved when students participate in interactive engagement activities. Thus, it is important that the learning environment/activity created around a modeling provides an interactive engagement experience. (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/models/Usefulness.html)
The teacher applies Total Physical Response (TPR) in demonstrating the subject. He acts out and the students describe what he does and it is done successfully, they are able to make responds that identify an entire class of objects or events. It is a type of learning which so-called “Concept learning” (Gagne 1965 in Brown 1994)

3. Joint Construction
In this step, students begin to contribute to the construction of whole examples of the text type. Meanwhile, the teacher gradually reduces the contribution to text construction, as the students move closer to being able to control the text-type independently (Feeze: 1998).
The teacher gives students the chance to apply their understanding in the two last steps and asks them to develop the other text types in their groups. Eventually students are asked to demonstrate and report their works.
The teacher groups students into some groups, each group is asked to make another text procedure and the teacher check their works continuously. It is useful to motivate the students’ habit to interact each other in a cooperative learning (Suherdi: 2007). And according to Lamson (1989) in Suherdi (2007) says that “they will need to cooperate rather than compete”.

4. Independent Construction
This step encourages students work independently with the text Learner performances are used for achievement assessment (Feeze: 1998). Nevertheless, it involves the teacher and students working together to discuss and revise the groups jointly constructed text and the students construction of their own independent text. (Burns: 1990 in Suherdi: 2007)
The teacher lets students work individually to make other procedure texts for certain period and he keeps watching students’ work enthusiastically. This kind of step is best performed effectively step-by-step and with sequential instruction (Christison: 2003)
b) Analysis of inter-steps
Having analyzed each step, it is time to analyze inter-step in the whole teaching-learning process. Again it is important to flash back to the Genre based approach cycle that used during teaching learning activity.
Table 2: The transitional activities in inter-steps
No Steps Explanation
1 Building knowledge of the field
 The teacher asks the students’ absence.
 The teacher invites the students to discuss the topic.
 The teacher introduces some materials or equipments to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher orders the students to say the materials in English loudly
 The students point what the teacher says or another student says. (TPR)
 The teacher asks the students to say some material to make a cup of tea in English
It is intended to invite students relate the texts to the real life (Suherdi:2007)

Transitional steps Classroom observation
 The teacher checks and rechecks students’ understanding by asking more questions about the vocabulary or materials. It is to make sure that students are ready to go on to the next steps.
T: Now I want to collect them here. (He put all the ingredients to make a cup of tea on his table).
T: What is this? (Show a cup)
S: Cup!
T: This? (Show a heater)
S: Heater!
T: And (point water)
S: Water!
T: Enough, yaa!
T: OK, now… aa… I would like to demonstrate … aa… how to make a cup of tea, yaa… I will show you how to make a cup of tea.

2 Modeling
 The teacher demonstrates and shows the students how to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher asks a student to demonstrate how to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher acts out silently, and the students say what he is doing.
 The teacher directs the students in making a cup of tea.
 The teacher repeats to act out silently and the students say what he is doing
 The teacher demonstrates how to make a cup of tea many times.
It is intended to Introduce the text completely and to be a stage in developing the model of text in the real life. (Suherdi: 2007)

Transitional steps Classroom observation
 Again the teacher checks and rechecks students’ understanding by asking a volunteer to come in front of the class and demonstrate how to make a cup of tea.
 The teacher writes the steps to make a cup of tea after students understand.
T: Now, I want two volunteers to come here, three volunteers, yaa… From you… come, come (He points two students and ask them to be in front of the class).
T: Ok, the boy first, the boy. (Pointing some students). The boys. Would you come?
T: Now, (Talking to the student). You pretend to boil the water. Hold… Hold the heater.
Boil the water, boil the water carefully!
S1: (Perform an action: boil the water carefully)
T: Ok, over there, yaa…
T: good, it’s how to make a cup of tea. (writing on the blackboard)
Number 1, how to make a cup of coffee….number one…boil…the water..
Number two….. Number two…..
S: put the tea into the cup..

3 Joint Construction
 The teacher groups the students to discuss how to make something.
 The teacher repeats how to make a cup of tea.
 The students go on to discuss in group of making another procedure text.
 The students write a variety of procedure text.
 In turn, each group reports assignments in front of the class.
 The teacher shows again the students the procedure of how to make a cup of tea. It is intended to give an opportunity for the students to apply and implement what was learned in the two previous steps namely BKOF and MOT in order to develop a new text in the same genre.
(Suherdi: 2007)

Transitional steps Classroom observation
 The teacher reminds students to the procedure texts written on the blackboard. He is really concerned with the students’ understanding, he wants all students are ready to the new steps before
T : Now… eh ….Ok
After discussing how to make something in your group, prepare your book….your paper, and make the text.
This kind of text yourself (pointing to the procedure text written on a blackboard), by yourself ya
What do you want to make? You can make the same as what your group made.
One by one you should make this kind of text.
Your text can be the same as your group’s. For example, your group makes Nutrisari, you also make a cup of Nutrisari.
Ok start!
Write down how to make something one by one.

4 Independent Construction
 The teacher orders the students to make something else (how to make something) in procedure texts individually.
 The students write individually their own procedure text.
It is intended to raise students’ creativity and competitiveness, and self confident. (Brown: 1994) and to give the students more chances to develop their own texts in the same genre.
(Suherdi: 2007)


From the aforementioned table, it is revealed that the teacher always checks and rechecks students’ understanding. It is intended to know whether they are ready to go on the next step and to relate the previous step with the latter one. So the teaching-learning process is interrelated among steps.
To sum up, the teacher has directed the students to every step successfully. It can be proved by the enthusiastic students in teaching learning.

c) Analysis of teacher’s evaluation
The video and class observation reveals that teacher conducts the evaluation informally in every step. Yet, he does not provide special period within teaching learning to evaluate students’ understanding and performance, but he conducts evaluation as if he teaches and has a talk with students. As a result, students do not realize that their teacher evaluates every step and activity during teaching-learning process.
The teacher conducts the evaluation in every transitional step such as follows:



Table 3: Teacher’s evaluation
No Transitional steps
From BKOF to MOT Classroom observation Evaluation
1 The teacher checks and rechecks students’ understanding by asking more questions about the vocabulary or materials. It is to make sure that students are ready to go on to the next steps.
T: Now I want to collect them here. (He put all the ingredients to make a cup of tea on his table).
T: What is this? (Show a cup)
S: Cup!
T: This? (Show a heater)
S: Heater!
T: And (point water)
S: Water!
T: Enough, yaa!
T: OK, now… aa… I would like to demonstrate … aa… how to make a cup of tea, yaa… I will show you how to make a cup of tea.
It can be inferred from the class observation that teacher do some evaluation as follows:
 asking the vocabulary
 Pronunciation
Transitional steps Classroom observation Evaluation
2 Again the teacher checks and rechecks students’ understanding by asking a volunteer to come in front of the class and demonstrate how to make a cup of tea.
The teacher writes the steps to make a cup of tea after students understand.
T: Now, I want two volunteers to come here, three volunteers, yaa… From you… come, come (He points two students and ask them to be in front of the class).
T: Ok, the boy first, the boy. (Pointing some students). The boys. Would you come?
T: Now, (Talking to the student). You pretend to boil the water. Hold… Hold the heater.
Boil the water, boil the water carefully!
S1: (Perform an action: boil the water carefully)
T: Ok, over there, yaa…
T: good, it’s how to make a cup of tea. (writing on the blackboard)
Number 1, how to make a cup of coffee….number one…boil…the water..
Number two….. Number two…..
S: put the tea into the cup.
In this step, the teacher evaluates
Listening comprehension

Transitional steps Classroom observation Evaluation
3 The teacher reminds students to the procedure texts written on the blackboard. He is really concerned with the students’ understanding, he wants all students are ready to the new steps before
T : Now… eh ….Ok
After discussing how to make something in your group, prepare your book….your paper, and make the text.
This kind of text yourself (pointing to the procedure text written on a blackboard), by yourself ya
What do you want to make? You can make the same as what your group made.
One by one you should make this kind of text.
Your text can be the same as your group’s. For example, your group makes Nutrisari, you also make a cup of Nutrisari.
Ok start!
Write down how to make something one by one. This step shows that the teacher conducts evaluation as follows:
 Listening comprehension
 Speaking
 Writing
Independent Construction Classroom observation Evaluation
4 The teacher orders the students to make something else (how to make something) in procedure texts individually.
 The students write individually their own procedure text.
T : Now… eh ….Ok
After discussing how to make something in your group, prepare your book….your paper, and make the text.
This kind of text yourself (pointing to the procedure text written on a blackboard), by yourself ya.
What do you want to make? You can make the same as what your group made.
One by one you should make this kind of text.
Your text can be the same as your group’s.
For example, your group makes Nutrisari, you also make a cup of Nutrisari.
Ok start!
Write down how to make something one by one.
(The students prepare anything to make such a text)
T : Write down on a piece of paper.
Write down your name, your class.
You try.
You make it yourself
S19: Bebas? (Does the topic depend on us?)
T : Up to you, if you want to make nutrisari, that,s o.k.
If you want to make a cup of coffee, that’s also o.k.
The evaluation that the teacher conducts are:
 Listening comprehension
 Speaking
 Writing
 potfolio

From the table above, it can be inferred that the teacher conducts informal evaluation during his teaching such as follows:
1. Asking the vocabulary. In fact, vocabulary covered in the previous lesson should be tested at the beginning of the next one. It is believed that vocabulary is very important to make communication run well. Without mastering sufficient vocabularies, it hard for learner to communicate (Thornbury: 2002). Therefore, teacher should check his students’ vocabulary periodically. He employs short answer questions (SAQs), oral presentation, direct testing and description of pictures sequences to evaluate the students’ vocabulary and listening comprehension.(Weir: 1990)
2. Pronunciation. The teacher emphasizes pronunciation in the whole class interaction by giving students the model of pronunciation. It is good not to teach it in the special time (Murphy: 2003) but when he speaks clearly he teaches them.
3. Listening comprehension. The students can learn listening by some strategies (Helgesen: 2003) as follows: (1) they can predict what they will hear. (2) they can infer the listening between the lines. (3) they notice what they do and do not understand. (4) they react what they hear and (5) they will check on how well they have understood.
4. Speaking. In the classroom activities, the teacher employs “role play” to assess students, speaking. It is excellent activity for speaking in relatively safe environment of the classroom. (Bailey: 2003)
5. Writing. Teacher teaches writing by ordering students to write what they are interested about. It is important to let them choose any topic and material they want to do (Alwasilah and Suzanna: 2005). He teaches writing directly and focus on process by directing students to write any kind of drinks which they like best.
6. Portfolio. The teacher collects students work selected by the students that demonstrate their efforts, progress, or achievement over a period of time.






D. CONCLUSION
Having analyzed all the steps and evaluation above, it can be drawn some conclusion as follows:
1. The teacher has been successful in implementing Genre Based Approach (GBA) for the secondary high school. He implements all the GBA steps such as (1) background knowledge of the field (2) modeling of the text (3) joint construction and (4) independent construction.
2. In general, the teacher can relate between one step to another well. He always emphasizes on students’ understanding before stepping to the new step by asking preceding knowledge.
3. The teacher applies both students-centered teaching and teacher-directed learning in his teaching-learning process. He can develop both of them successfully and make students active and not boring (Suherdi: 2007)
4. The teacher sometimes uses action and demonstrates to convey meaning, and it is highly efficient to engage the students in acquire a new language. (Thornbury: 1999)
5. The teacher conduct the evaluation in real-world situation (Weir: 1990) and he does it without special test but he uses observation in the classroom, portfolios and conference, and interview as well (Genessa and Upshur: 1996)
6. The teacher, however, cannot manage the available time maximally. So he cannot wait any more for the students’ works to discuss because the time is over and the bell rings.








E. SUGGESTION
Based on findings from analysis above, here are some suggestion to improve teachers’ skill and performance:
1. The teacher should manage the available time as good as possible to cover all teaching activities as mentioned in a lesson plan. Time management is important in effectiveness of teaching-learning activities.
2. The teacher must pay close attention to principle of classroom assessment and evaluation, namely (1) make sure that the kind of assessment teacher uses is appropriate for its intended purpose, (2) make sure teacher’s assessment tasks are based on an explicit statement of the ability he is assessing and are clearly related to learning outcomes, (3) involve learners in assessment and (4) use a variety of assessment methods. (Brindley: 2003)
3. The teacher should provide more questions about prior knowledge or schemata before starting to the new lesson, it is rewarding to bridge students from the last lesson to the incoming lesson. (Moses: 2000)
4. The teacher’s question should be critical questions which make student think (Suherdi: 2007) and encourage them to be creative.
5. In teaching-learning process, The teacher avoids to (1) repeat questions, (2) repeat all students’ answers, (3) answer the questions, (4) not give the students the chance to answer long answer, (5) not pay attention to students’ answers, and (6) appoints the same student to answer the questions. (Orlich, et.al: 1985 in Suherdi: 2007)











Reference:

Alwasilah, A. Chaedar. (2004). Perspektif Pendidikan Bahasa Inggis di Indonesia.. Bandung: Andira.

Alwasilah, A. Chaedar. (2007). Language, culture, and education: a portrait of contemporary Indonesia. Bandung: Andira.

Alwasilah, A. Chaedar and Suzanna, Senny. (2005). Pokoknya Menulis, Cara Baru! Menulis dengan metode kolaborasi. Bandung: PT. Kiblat Buku Utama

Bailey, Kathleen M (David Nunan – editor). (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: The NcGraw-Hill Companies.

Brindley, geoff. M (David Nunan – editor). (2003). Classroom-based assessment in Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: The NcGraw-Hill Companies.

Brown. H. Doughlas. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. San Francisco: Prentice Hall.

Christison, Mary Ann (David Nunan – editor). (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: The NcGraw-Hill Companies.

Darling-Hamond, Linda. et. al (1999). A License to Teach – Raising Standard for Teaching. USA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2006). Panduan pengembangan Rencana Pengembangan Pembelajaran (RPP). Direktorat Jendral Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah: Jakarta

Eggins, Suzanne. (1994). An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics.London: Pinter

Genesee, Fred and Upshur, Jhon A. (1996). Classroom ased evaluation in second language education. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gerot, Linda and Wignell, Wignell (1995). Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Australia: Gerd Stabler – Antipodean Educational Enterprise.

Harmer. Jeremy. (2002). The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Helgesen, Marc. (David Nunan – editor). (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: The NcGraw-Hill Companies.

Moses, Alice (2000). Building on Prior Knowledge and Meaningful Student Contexts/Cultures. [Online] Available at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/ issues/students /learning/lr100.htm [28th December 2007]

Murphy, John (David Nunan – editor). (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: The NcGraw-Hill Companies.

Musthafa, Bahrudin.(2003). EFL for Young Learners. Bandung: Department of English, Indonesia University of Education

Nunan, David. (1991). Language Teaching Methodology. UK: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.

Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 dan 23 tahun 2006

Richards and Rodgers. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching – A description and analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Jack C (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Suherdi. Didi. (2006). Classroom Discourse Analysis: A Systematic approach. Bandung: UPI Press.

Suherdi. Didi. (2007). Menakar Kualitas Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: UPI Press.
Thornbury, Scott. (1999). Hoow to teach Grammar. England: Longman.

Wachidah, Siti. (2005). Pembelajaran Bahasa Berbasis Genre. Jakarta: UNJ

Weir, Cyril J. (1990). Communicative Language Testing. UK: Prentice Hall.

(http://www.thegateway.org/collections.html)

(http://coursel.winona.edu/pjohnson/e511/genre.htm).

(http://www.iteachilearn.com/commins),

(http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/models/Usefulness.html)



LESSON PLAN

Sekolah : SMP NEGERI 1 BANJARAN KAB. BANDUNG
Subject : English
Grade/ term : VII /1
Lesson meeting : 1
Time Allocation : 2 x 40 minutes
Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks fungsional dan esai pendek sederhana berbentuk “procedure” untuk berinteraksi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari hari.
Kompetensi Dasar : Menulis: Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esai pendek sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari hari dalam teks berbentuk procedure.


Aspek/Skills : Menulis (integrasi dengan membaca, berbicara dan mendengarkan.

Indikator:

- Menulis:
 Menulis essay berbentuk procedure.
 Membuat kalimat imperative.

-Membaca:
 Membaca nyaring teks berbentuk prosedur.

-Mendengarkan
 Merespon ungkapan kalimat perintah

-Berbicara
 Melakukan monolog pendek dalam bentuk prosedur.

1. Tujuan Pembelajaran
• Merespon ungkapan perintah.
• Membaca nyaring teks berbentuk prosedur.
• Menulis esai berbentuk prosedur.
• Melakukan monolog pendek dalam bentuk prosedur.

2. Teaching Material : Procedure Text / Making a cup of Tea

3. Teaching Methods : Genre Based Approach / GBA

4. Teaching steps:

A. Opening Activities

Stage 1 : Building Knowledge of Field

The Teacher stimulates the students (ss) by asking some questions related to the
topic.
E.g. Do you like to drink a cup of tea?
What does it taste?
When do you usually drink tea?
Do you make it by yourself?
Who makes it?
Do you know the ingredient to make a cup of tea?

Scaffoldings
1. Melakukan TPR (Total Physical Response)
 Boil the water.
 Put the tea into a cup.
 Add some sugar.
 Pour the hot water into the cup.
 Stir it.
 Drink it.
2. Meminta siswa menyebutkan kosa kata yang berkaitan dengan topic pembelajaran.
3. Berlatih mengucapkan kata/frasa/kalimat dengan lafal dan ejaan yang tepat.

B. Main Activities

Stage 2: Modeling

2.1. Guru membrikan model teks prosedur dengan mendemonstrasikan langkah membuat secangkir the manis.
e.g.: Well, I’m going to show you how to make a cup of tea.
Just listen carefully and pay your attention!

2.2. Guru meminta “volunteer students” untuk mendemonstrasikan cara membuat secangkirkan the manis seperti yang dilakukan oleh guru.

Stage 3: Joint Construction.

3.1. In groups, students construct their own text which is similar with the text during modeling activity, for example, “how to make a glass of milk or how to make a cup of coffee”.
3.2. Teacher reminds the students about the ingredients and tools that they need to produce it. Then students write them on their exercise book.
3.3. The group reads aloud the text or tells the procedure of making a cup of coffee or a glass of juice in front of the class.

Stage 4: Independent Construction

4.1. Individually the students make a short essay of procedure.

C. Closing:
1. Make a reflection of the learning activities that has been learned.
2. Give the students an assignment to such a procedure.

5. Teaching instrument/: series of pictures

6. Assessment : (written): product of students’ text
: (speaking): class performance.


FORMAT PENILAIAN PORTFOLIO:

Nama siswa:………………

No. SK/SD Periode Kriteria Ket.
Tata Bahasa Kosa kata Kelengkapan
Gagasan Sistematika
Penulisan
1. Menulis
Karangan
Prosedur
2. Membuat
Resensi
Buku








FORMAT PENILAIAN BERBICARA

Nama Siswa:……………………

No. Aspek yang dinilai
Baik Tidak Baik
1. Organization (Introduction, body, conclusion
2. Content (depth of knowledge, logic)
3. Fluency
4. Language:
Pronunciation
Grammar
Vocabulary
5. Performance (eye contact, facial expression, gesture)
Skor yang di capai
Skor Maksimum


7. Sumber Belajar:
 Realia.
 Authentic materials



Bandung,

Guru Mata Pelajaran:

1. Dasep Suprihajdi
2. Amri Ikhsan
3. Robiatul Adawiyah
4. Hendra.


TRANSCRIPTION OF THE REAL TEACHING
AT SMPN 1 BANJARAN, KABUPATEN BANDUNG

Teacher (T): aah…Who doesn’t come today
Who doesn’t come… today?
Who doesn’t come today, your friends!
T: All of you come today, right!
S (Student): Right!
T: All of your friends come today, yaa!
S: Yes!
T: Ok!, Good!
T: aah, I would like … aa to demonstrate … about how to …aaa a cup of tea.
Do you like tea?
S: Yes!
T: aa… Do you always …aaa ... make it yourself or made it by your mother?
(The teacher look at a student). Do you?
S: Yes!
T: (Look at another student). What about you? Make the tea yourself at home?
S: Yes, sir!
T: Yes, good!
Yaa… aaa… you make the tea…aaa…yourself, by yourself, some others make the tea by mother or father, or sometimes brother.
Aaa… I would like to … I would like you to repeat what I say!
Come on! A cup!
S: a cup!
T: a cup!
S: a cup!
T: (show a spoon)
S: Spoon!
T: Ok, good!. Come on! Spoon!
S: Spoon!
T: Very good!
Say! (Show a cup to a certain students)
S1: a cup!
S2: a spoon!
T: No.. No.., a cup!
S2: a cup!
S3: a cup!
T: OK!
S4: a cup!
T: a cup!
S5: a cup!
S6: a cup!
T: Ok!
S7: a cup!
T: a cup!
S8: a cup!
T: Yaa! A cup!
(Show a spoon) What is this?
S: Spoon!
T: Good!
(Point a spoon). What is that?
S: Spoon!
T: Heater!
S: Heater!
T: Heater!
S: Heater!
T: Very good! Heater!
S: Heater!
T: Come on!
Heater!
S1: heater!
T: Heater!
S2: Heater!
T: Heater!
S3: Heater!
T: Come on! Heater!
S: Heater!
T: Very good! Heater!
S: Heater!
T: Haa!... OK, thanks!
T: And … Mr. Habib… and I have one aaa… (show a bag of tea)
S: Tea!
T: Good! Tea!
S: Tea!
T: Tea, yaa!
This? (show sugar)
S: Sugar!
T: Say! Sugar!
S: Sugar!
T: Tea!
S: Tea!
T: Sugar!
S: Sugar!
T: What is that? (Look at water)
S: Water!
T: Say! Water!
S: Water!
T: Water!
S: Water!
T: Good!
Now I want you to… stand up! Please stand up! In the front line! Stand up! In the front line!. Good!
T: OK! (The teacher puts the ingredients of making tea in different places)
Now I want you to point, to point, right!. For example: I point the cup, point the heater, point the spoon, point sugar, Point… (show a tea bag)
S: Tea!
T: Come on! Point to sugar!
S: Point sugar1 (All students point sugar).
T: Don’t say anything! Just point!. The front line, Ok!
S: OK!
T: You are the rest, don’t say anything! Your friends will point the things that I say.
Are you ready?
OK! Point the sugar! Point tea! Point spoon! Point the water! Point a cup! Point heater!
Point spoon and sugar! Point spoon and heater!
Point heater, tea and sugar!
OK! Good!
Second line! Stand up, please, yes!
(The teacher invites a student to go in front of the class). Come, come here!
You ask your friends to point anything here, yaa.. OK! Go!
S1: Point to spoon!
Point to water!
Point to tea!
Point to sugar!
T: Yaa… You point two things, Ok! You point spoon and water, tea and heater. Two things… Point blab la and bla bla.
Go!
Point! (The teacher whispers the student)
S1: Point and spoon and sugar!
(All students laugh)
T: What he said, Anita?
OK, Thanks. Give applause to him! (All students clap their hands)
The second, and the third line. Stand up, please. Stand up. Now I would like to give you three assumptions at the same, three, three assumptions. Listen first and point!
Point the heater, the spoon and the sugar!
S: (All students in the third line point the heater, the spoon and the sugar)
T: Point the sugar, the spoon, the heater.
S: (All students in the third line point the sugar, the spoon, the heater)
T: Point the tea, water and spoon!
S: (All students in third line point the tea, water and spoon)
T: OK! I want a lady; I want a girl…aa….
(The teacher points a girl). Stand up! Yes, listen, please. Don’t worry, don’t worry!
Point two things as your friends point them!
Make sure!
Female Student (FS): Point tea and sugar!
(The other students point what she wants)
T: Good, Ok!
FS: Point spoon and water!
(The other students point what she wants)
T: Good!
(The teacher and the students all laugh)
T: This one and that one!
(The teacher point a cup and a bag of tea)
S: Cup……. Tea.
T: Ok, thank you, very well.
(All students clap their hands)
T: The last… the last. Ok … aa… four things at the same times.
(One of the students ask the teacher, it is not heard)
T: That’s ok.
T: Point the tea, the spoon, the cup, sugar!
S: (The students point what the teacher say and he also point them)
T: That’s ok. Sugar, spoon, heater and tea!
S: (The students point what the teacher say and he also point them)
T: OK, very good.
T: Once again, I want you to say: tea!
S: Tea!
T: Spoon!
S: Spoon!
T: (The teacher point water)
S: Water!
T: (He points a heater)
S: Heater!
T: (He points a cup)
S: Cup!
T: (He points sugar). Sugar!
S: Sugar!
T: Now I want to collect them here. (He put all the ingredients to make a cup of tea on his table).
T: What is this? (Show a cup)
S: Cup!
T: This? (Show a heater)
S: Heater!
T: And (point water)
S: Water!
T: Enough, yaa!
T: OK, now… aa… I would like to demonstrate … aa… how to make a cup of tea, yaa… I will show you how to make a cup of tea.
T: First, boil the water, boil the water, Ok! And then, after that (Show a heater)
T: (Cough). Sorry! Put the tea into the cup….
Put the tea into the cup. After that… What is this?
S: Sugar!
T: And then…
S: Pour…
T: OK, and this spoon, this sugar. Add some sugar, add some sugar, yaa! Add some sugar, then pour the …
S: Water!
T: Into the …
S: cup.
T: What water?
S: What water?
T: What water?
S: What water?
T: Yaa… I ask you what water?
S: (All students laugh)
T: Hot water, yaa…
S: Hot water!
T: or boiling water!
S: Boiling water!
T: pour the boiling water into the …
S: Cup!
T: And then, stir it, stir, Come on: Stir it!
S: Stir!
T: Stir it!
S: Stir it!
T: Finally!
S: Finally!
T: Finally!
S: Drink it!
T: Drink it, yaa…
T: OK! …aa.. Let’s make tea together. Let make tea together. Repeat after me, Ok!
T: First, boil the water, come on!
S: First, boil the water!
T: Then…
S: Then…
T: Put the tea into the cup!
S: Put the tea into the cup!
T: Ok! Say again, First
S: First, boil the water.
T: Boil the water, then…
S: Put the tea into the cup!
T: After that!
S: After that!
T: Pour, eh… Sorry!, not pour, but after that add some sugar!
S: Add some sugar!
T: After that, add some sugar!
S: After that, add some sugar!
T: Next!
S: Next1
T: Pour the boiling water!
S: Pour the boiling water!
T: Then!
S: Then!
T: Stir!
S: Stir!
T: The tea! Yeah.. Stir the tea!
S: Stir the tea!
T: Finally…
S: Finally…
T: Drink it!
S: Drink it!
T: Fresh!
S: Fresh!
T: Sweet1. Fresh and sweet!
T: Now, say again, you just say what I do. For example: what am I doing? (as if he boil the water or he acts as if he boil the water). “What am I doing?
S: Boiling the water?
T: Boil the water!
S: Boil the water!
T: (Demonstrate, put the tea into the cup)
S: Put the tea into the cup!
T: (Demonstrate). Add some sugar!
S: Add some sugar!
T: Add some sugar!
T: (Demonstrate, pour the boiling water into the cup)
S: Pour the boiling water into the cup!
T: (Demonstrate, stir the tea)
S: Stir it!
T: Stir it!
S: Stir it!
T: Stir it!
S: Stir it!
T: Finally…
S: Drink it!
T: Yes! That is the way of making coffee. Sorry a cup of tea.
T: Yaa… a cup of …
S: tea!
T: Come on! Now watch it, OK! Boil the water carefully, come on! Boil the water carefully!
(He acts what he does)
S: Boil the water carefully!
T: Boil the water quickly! (He say and act it quickly)
S: Boil the water quickly!
T: Thanks, yaa…
T: Boil the water carefully!
S: Boil the water carefully!
T: Boil the water quickly!
S: Boil the water quickly!
T: Thanks
T: Well… aah… Put the tea into the cup carefully!
S: Put the tea into the cup carefully!
T: Now, put the tea into the cup quickly!
S: Put the tea into the cup quickly
T: Ok, well… aa… Add some sugar carefully!
S: Add some sugar carefully!
T: Yaa.. or… Add some sugar quickly!
S: Add some sugar quickly!
T: and, then, pour the boiling water carefully!
T: or pour the boiling water quickly!
(Someone knock the door and say: Assalamualaikum)
T: Waalaikumussalam..
T: ah… after that, we … aa… then, stir the water carefully. Stir it carefully and stir the water “quickly”
S: Stir the water quickly!
T: OK, finally, drink the water, the tea “quickly’
That is ‘quickly. (He drinks the tea quickly)
And ‘carefully’ (He shows he drinks the tea carefully)
T: Now, I want two volunteers to come here, three volunteers, yaa… From you… come, come (He points two students and ask them to be in front of the class).
T: Ok, the boy first, the boy. (Pointing some students). The boys. Would you come?
T: Now, (Talking to the student). You pretend to boil the water. Hold… Hold the heater.
Boil the water, boil the water carefully!
S1: (Perform an action: boil the water carefully)
T: Ok, over there, yaa…

T: Well, Now, yaa… boil the water quickly!
S: (Perform an action, boil the water quickly)
T: Yaa.. aa… Put the tea into the cup carefully!
S1: (Perform an action: put the tea into the bag carefully).
T: Put the tea into the cup quickly!
S1: (perform an action: put the tea into the bag quickly)
T: Next, pour the boiling water quickly!
S: (Perform an action: pour the boiling water quickly)
T: OK, repeat, pour the boiling water quickly!
S: Ok, pour the boiling water quickly!
T: Pour the boiling water carefully!
S: Pour the boiling water carefully!
T: Add some sugar carefully!
S: Add some sugar carefully!
T: And stir the water quickly, quickly, stir!
S: Stir the water quickly!
T: Then, finally, drink the water, the tea carefully, carefully
S: Drink the water carefully!
T: Careful!
S: Careful!
T: Ok, (Give applause)
T: Now, the girls (Pointing the girls to be in front of the class, inviting three girls and one boy)
(The teacher asks the boys, whisper him to do something)
S:….


T: and then….add the sugar….ok…..thank you! now once again euhm…what’s this?.....what’s this?????
S: Heater….
T: inside the heater???
S: water…
T: (showing the sugar)
S: Sugar…
T: (acting out)
S: pour……
T: (showing the spoon)
S: spoon……
T: (showing the cup)
S: a cup….
T: (showing the tea)
S .tea…
T: what am I doing? (acting out: boil the water)
S: boil the water
T: boil the water…..good…come on…”boil the water”
S: boil the water!!!!!
T: (acting out: put the tea into the cup)
S: put the sugar into the cup
T: (acting out)
S: add sugar
T: (acting out)
S: Pour the water
T: pour the water…..
T: (acting out)
S: sir the water…
T: the water…..finally??? (acting out)
S: drink the tea…
T: good, it’s how to make a cup of tea. (writing on the blackboard)
Number 1, how to make a cup of coffee….number one…boil…the water..
Number two….. Number two…..
S: put the tea into the cup..
T: put the tea into the cup.. number three…???
S: add the sugar
T: number 4?
S: pour the water into the cup.
T: pour the water into the cup.
S: the cup…
T: number 5?
S: stir the water…
T: stir the water……finally???
S: drink the water.
T: Ok….now….you act out!!! In your table…euhmmm…boil the water!....ok…boil the water!!!!! You just do it like this ok?...
S: yessss…..
T: boil the water!...
S: boil the water…
T:…ok…do not say anything…..once again...boil the water!!!
S: (acting out)
T: put the tea into the cup..
S: (acting out)
T: add some sugar…. add some sugar….
S: (acting out)
T: now pour the water.
S: (acting out)
T: stir the water…
S: (acting out)
T: Ok..you repeat…pour the water..
S: (acting out)
T: Ok….(giving applause)… now I want you to ask me to do something…..ya.. you tried before …..just say the steps of making the tea.. from no 1 to no 6..and I will act …ok?....and I’ll be accompanied by one boy and one girl……the boy from there ……..come to me…., the girl from there ….come to me……come!!!!!
Ok… you ask us…. To do these steps o???? starting from the number 1 and we together will act out ok…..now say…no 1……
S: heat the water…
S: boil the water…..
T: boil the water… ok… repeat…ok start again….start from no 1
S: boil the water…..
T and S: (acting out)
T: next???
S: put the tea into the cup
T and S: (acting out)
S: and then add the sugar
T and S: (acting out)
S: put the hot water into the water
T and S: (acting out)
S: stir the water
T and S: (acting out)
S: drink the tea
T and S: (acting out)
T: ok… so…euhm….so …..beside making a cup of tea, what do you like to make at home? Besides the tea…what else you want to drink???? Tea??? milk????
S: milk, juice, Nutrisari….
T: Nutrisari….ok…coffee, milk, juice, Nutrisari…what else????
S: Sisri!!!
T: Sisri…….yaa…
S: Pop ice
T: good…..Bajigur…..bandrek….
S: kola-kola….
T:….ok……now divide into groups…ya…five each group……..later…. euhm….ok… five of you ok….. you in one group and you join them…ya….sit there….you move there…..face….face them!!!!
Ok you join them, bring your chair please…you also sit there, you five here…together ….euhm…..would you like to this group or that group???? Ok….face them like the other group…. is it ok for you to bring the chair? Ok….
Ok…you turm right, you …ok….here…ok…you move the chair.
SS: (acting out)
T: ok each…pay attention…if I want to make a cup of coffee, so I need....I need ..sugar, I need water, I need hot water…yeach…. Sugar…ok…
S: spoon..
T: spoon ok… sugar, hot water ok that what I mean if I want to make a cup of coffee. Yeach….and each group should make a cup of blab bla bla….up to you… the sisri ya…. Nutrisari…a cup of milk, a cup of coffee, …ok…what do you need if you want to make a cup of coffee??? what do you need if you want to make a cup of coffee???
S: sugar
T: ya sugar…
S: coffee
T: coffee
S: hot water
T: hot water ya…..ok…what o you want to make…. You decide what do you want to make..if you want to make just a cup of coffee…discuss together ya…. What do you want to make?
S: a cup of coffee..
T: ok….a cup of coffee..you????
S: the sisri
T: ok ….you?
S: a cup of chocolate
T: ok..a cup of chocolate … what do you want to make?
S: Energen…
T: what?
S: energen..
T: good…energen……you?
S: milk…
T: milk……ok….do it! You should remember the steps…ya…this is a kind of steps…ya…. Ok please discuss with your friends if you want to make coffee….so first…you….here…all aterial…like tea, coffee, sugar, and so on and you discuss the steps of this…..ok….
T: (going around and checking the students’ activities)
S:…..a cup of coffee……. (discussing)
T: what do you want to make?
S: milk….
T: ok…
S: boil the water (discussing)
T: (going around and checking the students’ activities)
Ss: (doing the tasks and discussing)


# 01 Within group A
S1: Sir…Sir… (He wants to question)
T : Yes please! (approaching the student)

# 02 Within group B
S2: Shake (pantomiming to shake something)
S3: Shake… milk shake (laughing)
S4: Hot water … hot water (giving an idea)

#03 Within the class
T: Attention please! Who wants to come forward first! Please stand up there!

(No volunteer students come. The teacher keeps silent to let students make a decision to come forward).

(after a few minutes, a group of students come to the front of the class)

# 04 Within the class
T : Please you come altogether
You act out here (addressing a student)
He says (pointing to another student)
T : Ok listen students. Come on. Ok (Asking the class to stop discussion for a
while)
S5: Ya

(The class is silent)

S6: I make a cup of coffee. We need many material to make a cup of coffee.
One, coffee
Two, we need sugar
Three, a cup
Four, spoon
Five, water
And six, heater
How to make a cup of coffee: First boil the water, second put the coffee into the cup, third add some sugar, fourth pour the boiling water into the cup, fifth stir the water, and finally drink it.

(The rest of the students within the group pantomime the words uttered by S6 simultaneously)

T : Ok bravo (giving applause). Thank you.

# 05 Within group C
S7: Sok atuh kahareup (come forward, will you?)
S8: Sok atuh maneh atuh (It should be you who come there)
S9: Ari urang loba kahareup (I often come forward)
S10: Yu ah… yu ah (Let’s come forward)
S11: Nif buru Nif (Hurry up Nif)

(The teacher keeps silent to let volunteer students have a decision to come forward)

# 06 Within the class
T : Next
S10: Yu (Come on)
T : Ok please.
S10: If we want to make a cup of milk…(giving opportunity to another to continue his utterances)
S11: Boil the water; put milk into the cup; add some sugar; pour the hot water into the cup; stir the water; drink it.
T : Bravo

# 07 Within group D
S12: Pa… ieu… pa (Sir.. it’s our turn, sir)
T : Wait a minute… wait a minute, after this group (pointing to group E who abruptly come forward) then that group (pointing to group F who has raised their hands signaling an eagerness to come forward soon) and your group ya (addressing group D)

# 08 Within group E in front of the class
S13: Boil the water; put the teh Sisri into the cup; add some sugar; pour the boiling water; stir it; and drink it.
The rest Students: Delicious.
T : Ok bravo (giving applause). Who’s next? That group, Ok.

# 09 Within group D
S12: Pak…(Sir)
T : Wait a minute!
S12: Pak e..euh (complaining)
T : Ok after this
S14: I’ll be back…I’ll be back

# 10 Within group F in front of the class
S15: We want to make a cup of milk; we need water; we need the milk; we need the cup; we need the spoon; we need the heater.
Boil the water; put the milk into the cup; stir it; drink it.
It is very delicious and sweet
The rest of the students: Pasti (It’s obviously delicious and sweet)

# 11 Within the class
S16: Keprok (clap hands)
T : Who’s next?
S12: Come please
S14: Tong mawa buku atuh (don’t bring any texts, shall we?)

# 12 Within group D in front of the class
S16: We want to make a cup of nutrisari. The tool use in nutrisari is spoon, heater, water, Nutrisari, a cup, and mie noodle (Joking).
S17: (Laughing at S16’s joke)
S16: One, boil the water.
The first, boil the water; the second put, the nutrisari into the cup, the three, pour the water into the cup; the fourth drink it.
S18: Very good
T : Ok bravo

# 13 Within the class
T : Ok students, You may sit as usual. Dismiss your groups. Sit again on your chair.
(The students sit back on their own chair)
T : Now… eh ….Ok
After discussing how to make something in your group, prepare your book….your paper, and make the text.
This kind of text yourself (pointing to the procedure text written on a blackboard), by yourself ya.
What do you want to make? You can make the same as what your group made.
One by one you should make this kind of text.
Your text can be the same as your group’s.
For example, your group makes Nutrisari, you also make a cup of Nutrisari.
Ok start!
Write down how to make something one by one.
(The students prepare anything to make such a text)
T : Write down on a piece of paper.
Write down your name, your class.
You try.
You make it yourself
S19: Bebas? (Does the topic depend on us?)
T : Up to you, if you want to make nutrisari, that,s o.k.
If you want to make a cup of coffee, that’s also o.k.

(The students begin to make the text individually)
T : Later, after finishing the text, you can stand up here, and you can demonstrate
Here. You can demonstrate it with the paper or without it.
If you want to.
T : Later after finishing it.
If you have finished your work, you may submit it to me.
You can give it if you have finished.
SS : Belum pak belum (We haven’t finished it yet, sir)
T : Ok, carry on

(Several minutes later)
T : If you have finished you may submit it.
SS: No… no…
T : If you haven,t finished, ok carry on.

(A student submit his work)
T : You want to come forward after this?
Ok, sit down first.

(Some other students submit their works)

Teeennng (The bell’s ringing signaling that time’s

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